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      Summary of Key Methods for Enhancing Memory

      Let's recap what we've learned!

      Memory has three parts: encoding, storage and retrieval. All three need to function successfully to remember what you need to.

      To encode information better:

      ·Process information deeply. Pay attention to the deeper meaning, make connections to what you already know and paraphrase rather than take notes verbatim.

      ·Intention doesn't matter so much. Trying to remember more doesn't make a difference if you use the same cognitive strategies!

      ·If possible, align your state and context when you're encoding the information to when you need to remember it. If this isn't possible, study in more environments/situations to make your memories more robust!

      To store information better, you need to be aware of how you forget. Here are the main possible causes of forgetting:

      ·Trace decay. This occurs when memories get old, or new knowledge overwrites the old data. Refresh important information on a schedule so it doesn't get lost!

      ·Interference. This happens when a new memory blocks an old one (e.g. you can't remember the Spanish word for water anymore because you learned the French one.) Alternatively, it can happen when old memories make learning something new harder.

      How can you store your memories better?

      ·Get enough sleep! Short naps can recover energy. Longer naps (60+ minutes) can enter the phase of sleep where memory consolidation happens. Ending your naps on a full sleep cycle can prevent grogginess. Of course, getting enough sleep at night is essential!

      ·Space out your practice. Done properly, you can get the same memory strength with 20-30% less time by spacing properly.

      Finally, you need to retrieve the memories in the situations that need them. How can you do this?

      ·More connections help. Memories are likely accessed by spreading activation, so if you think of related items, that can help you retrieve something difficult.

      ·Plan ahead and visualize the context you'll need to retrieve something in when you study.

      ·Practice testing is the single most-effective technique you can use! Practice recall, not just recognition. Harder recall creates stronger memories.



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